Industrial cultivation of porcini mushrooms

Industrial cultivation of porcini mushrooms


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Growing porcini mushrooms on an industrial scale is a good idea to start your own business. Boletus is obtained from spores or mycelium, which are obtained independently or purchased ready-made. Conditions conducive to the active growth of these fungi must be provided.

Features of porcini mushrooms

Porcini mushrooms have excellent taste, therefore they are used to prepare soups, main courses and snacks.

The calorie content of boletus is 22 Kcal, but they contain proteins, vitamins and various nutrients.

Important! The growth of porcini mushrooms is possible only under certain conditions: high humidity, stable climate, moderate rainfall.

These fungi prefer dry soils and are rarely found in young plantations less than 50 years old. In natural conditions, even an experienced mushroom picker cannot always detect them.

Therefore, the cost per 1 kg of boletus reaches 1 thousand rubles, which makes them an attractive investment. Provided the necessary conditions are met, porcini mushrooms can be grown for sale.

Earlier it was believed that it is difficult to get a good harvest of boletus on an industrial scale. This was due to the fact that these fungi form a symbiosis of mycelium with tree roots. However, research by Dutch scientists refuted this claim.

Growing conditions

The active growth of porcini mushrooms begins when certain conditions are met.

After planting, the mycelium is in the incubation stage, for which the following indicators are required:

  • temperature within 23-25 ​​° С;
  • no drafts or ventilation;
  • humidity not more than 90%;
  • complete absence of light.

When mushroom caps appear, the conditions change:

  • the temperature is reduced to 10 ° C;
  • provide good ventilation of the room;
  • watering twice a day;
  • turn on the light every day for 5 hours.

The first crop is harvested after 20 days. Grown mushrooms are carefully cut with a knife at the root.

Raw materials

Mushrooms are grown from spores or mycelium. In an industrial setting, mycelium is most often used. Another way to get mushrooms is to use mycelium, which is taken from the forest.

Receiving a dispute

To grow mushroom spores, you need to follow a specific algorithm:

  1. Collect about 15 mushrooms with cap sizes of 15 cm or more.
  2. Caps are separated from the mushrooms, which are placed in water (200 g per liter). For 10 liters of water add 3 tbsp. l. sugar or alcohol.
  3. The container with mushrooms is kept warm for a day at high humidity.
  4. After the specified time, the caps are crushed to form a homogeneous mass.

Using mycelium

The mycelium is the vegetative body of fungi, which can differ depending on its internal structure. The sale of mycelium is carried out by various enterprises that grow mushrooms on an industrial scale. They get the material they need in the laboratory.

The mycelium is packed by weight in plastic containers or plastic bags. When storing and transporting it, it is important that the temperature is kept low.

Advice! Mycelium is purchased at the rate of 0.5 kg per 1 sq. m landings.

You can also get mycelium at home. For this, the fruiting body of the fungus is taken, which is placed in a sterilized test tube. For two weeks the test tube is placed in a warm room with a temperature of 24 degrees. The finished mycelium is planted in the substrate.

The acquired mycelium is checked for several indicators:

  • appearance (white, no yellow or green areas, pronounced mushroom smell);
  • uniform grain structure of mycelium (determined by cutting one or more grains);
  • landing of a prototype.

The mycelium is planted in a specific order:

  1. Putting the mycelium in the cold for several hours.
  2. Grinding the mycelium directly in the bag.
  3. Mixing mycelium and soil and placing it at the breeding site. The topsoil should be up to 7 cm.

Choosing a growing method

Boletus is grown in natural conditions in the open air. In an industrial environment, a greenhouse or a special room is prepared, which is equipped with the necessary equipment.

Growing in an open area

You can plant porcini mushrooms outdoors if trees grow on the territory. The landing procedure includes several stages:

  1. In the area where pines, oaks, spruces, oaks or birches grow, a layer of soil (10 cm) is removed. The procedure is performed around each tree within a radius of 0.5 m.
  2. The roots of the trees are covered with mycelium or fungal spores, then the removed soil is returned to its place.
  3. Water the planting every few days. An area around one tree will require about 20 liters of water.
  4. To maintain the required humidity level, the mycelium is covered with straw (up to 0.5 m).
  5. For the winter, the site can be covered with moss or straw.

Advice! In the south, mushrooms can be planted in May, and in the northern regions, the procedure is postponed to August.

Fruiting begins in the second year. The disadvantage of this method is that it is harvested only during the mushroom season. For year-round cultivation, the preparation of a greenhouse or a special room is required.

Growing in a greenhouse

For the propagation of porcini mushrooms, special varieties have been bred in greenhouses. For these purposes, a glass or film greenhouse is suitable.

The main condition here is to ensure minimal lighting. Direct sunlight should not enter the greenhouse.

To grow boletus in a greenhouse, you should adhere to the following algorithm:

  1. Purchase of soil.
  2. Adding sawdust of any kind, manure, compost or organic fertilizers to the soil.
  3. For a week, the mixture is left to infuse.
  4. The earth is moved to a greenhouse and the mycelium of the mushrooms is planted.

Growing at home

Provided the necessary conditions are provided, boletus mushrooms can be grown in the cellar, basements and even in apartments. It is most convenient to use plastic bags for growing mushrooms, which can be hung from the ceiling or put on racks.

In the basement it is better to fill the floor with concrete Wood or dirt floors are conducive to the spread of harmful microorganisms.

Ventilation holes are made in the bags through which porcini mushrooms will germinate. To do this, cross-shaped incisions are made in the bags every 10 cm.

Advice! The room is sterile, and all work is done with gloves.

The procedure for obtaining a crop of porcini mushrooms is as follows:

  1. Getting mycelium in any suitable way.
  2. A substrate is being prepared, consisting of hay, sunflower husks, sawdust, chopped corn cobs.
  3. The substrate is poured with water and put on fire. Boil it for an hour and then cool it down.
  4. The mycelium and the substrate are mixed, and the mycelium content in the mixture is 5%.
  5. The resulting mass is tamped into bags in which the cuts are made.

Purchase of equipment

Special equipment helps to maintain the conditions that allow the mycelium to germinate. Additionally, measuring devices are purchased that will allow you to track the necessary indicators.

Maintaining temperature and humidity

If the room is cold, heaters or heat guns are installed. After sprouting mushrooms, you can turn them off or lower the temperature.

Split systems help to provide the required temperature in a short time. If cultivation is planned all year round, heating is recommended.

To maintain the required humidity, you need to install spray guns in the room. Containers filled with water are placed every 2 m. An effective way to retain moisture is to use sawdust.

Lighting installation

The only type of mushroom that does not require access to light is the champignon. The porcini mushroom is more demanding on the availability of lighting.

Important! The presence of windows in the room for growing boletus is not a prerequisite. In a greenhouse or shed, it is recommended to paint over the glass with lime or white paint.

If the growth of porcini mushrooms takes place indoors, you need to install lighting fixtures. In this case, fluorescent lamps with a capacity of 100 to 180 lux / h are selected. The lamps should be marked with RDL or DRLF, which indicates the study of the red-blue spectrum, as close as possible to the natural one. It is allowed to use lamps marked with LDC or LTBTs.

Ventilation of the room

Natural ventilation is not sufficient to support the growth of fungi. As they mature, they need more air flow.

Therefore, a ventilation system is installed in the room. An extractor hood is installed at the bottom of the walls or on the floor. This is necessary to eliminate fungal spores, which are harmful to the body in large quantities.

Watering mushrooms

During the period of active growth, mushrooms need intensive watering. Moisture can be supplied manually with a spray bottle.

On an industrial scale, irrigation systems are installed that provide drip water supply. Its temperature should be 18 ° C. When cold water enters, the mycelium may die.

Conclusion

Porcini mushrooms are valued for their rich composition and high taste. On an industrial scale, they are grown in a greenhouse, basement or other prepared room. To get a good harvest, you need to purchase the necessary equipment, soil, substrate and mycelium.


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