Three-lobed almond (Luiseania)

Three-lobed almond (Luiseania)


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This amazing plant has two names at once. Or, more precisely, three. It was also known as Chinese Terry Plum. The inhabitants of Western Europe call the shrub a terry plum, and in the Soviet Union it took root as a three-lobed almond. In the common people it was dubbed sakura, although this plant has nothing to do with the Japanese cherry. The unusually beautiful flowering bushes immediately won the hearts of gardeners and collectors. But in parks you will not find louiseania. Her color is too gorgeous. Decorative twigs break off for bouquets. And the secrets of growing this plant are not known to all gardeners. But you can still grow a mysterious Asian woman on your site. It is not difficult to understand the variety of types and intricacies of caring for three-bladed almonds.

Description of three-lobed almond

This plant is a small tree or shrub 2-3 m high. Its bark is brownish. The leaf plates are three-lobed with small denticles; on the reverse side, they have a slightly grayish tint. Terry flowers, about 2.5 cm in size, can be white or pink. After flowering in many species, fruits appear - a small drupe, slightly rounded.

Popular varieties

Three-lobed almond, the photo of which is presented below, has many types.

The most popular ones are:

  1. Captivity. One of the most famous varieties of three-lobed almonds. It has double flowers (up to 4 cm in diameter). Interestingly, the flowering period of the plant coincides with the appearance of leaves on the branches. As a result, the bush becomes lush and branched (reaches a height of 2 m). Immediately after flowering, all fruits fall off, not having time to ripen and give seeds.
  2. Kievskaya. The plant is tall (about 3.5 m). The shade of the flowers is darker and more saturated. It is characterized by an earlier and more abundant flowering, but it lasts no more than a week. After the leaves bloom. Has a rich almond aroma.
  3. Vesnyanka. Excellent standard grade. The flowers are a little flat, but they retain their doubleness. They differ in delicate shades of pink, but turn white before fading. Gardeners prefer this variety for its endurance and resistance to diseases (even to a monolial burn).
  4. Rosenmund. European variety with international awards. Three-lobed almond Rosenmund has compact size bushes with large flowers (5 cm in diameter). The budding period is longer than that of the rest - up to 21 days.
  5. Crimson. The plant is characterized by the presence of straight shoots. They are strewn with flowers of a deep crimson hue. The plant does not bear fruit.
  6. Chinese. A well-known hybrid. The branches of the plant are erect, bloom early and do not differ in bright colors. Method of removal - grafting on felt cherries. Outwardly, it is very similar to sakura. Three-lobed Chinese almonds bear fruit for years, resembling felt cherries in appearance, only much larger.
  7. Tanyusha. The shrub is relatively small, but very beautiful. The flowers of the plant are bright, with a large double corolla, which in turn consists of three dozen fancifully curved petals.

Planting and caring for three-lobed almonds

In general, this plant is not difficult to grow. Beginners may face some difficulties. But, having enough information about the preferences of the three-bladed almond, you can safely plant it in your garden. A rare shrub can be compared with it in decorativeness.

Preparation of the planting site and material

First, you should pick up a healthy and viable three-lobed almond seedling. They can often be purchased in special containers. Three-year-old specimens are suitable as planting material. Their root system is already strong enough.

The site should be sunny, but without drafts and gusty winds (especially during the cold season). Areas flooded with spring floods are also prohibited. The three-lobed almond responds calmly to some shading. And there are no special requirements for the composition of the soil.

Attention! To achieve good growth and flowering of three-lobed almonds, it is better to plant it in fertile soil with a weak alkaline environment (permissible fluctuations in pH values ​​are from 7.5 to 7.7).

Garden soil for three-blade almonds must be fed with humus (add two parts), and use sand as a baking powder (no more than one part).

Landing rules

Three-lobed almonds are distinguished by good pollination. Therefore, gardeners often plant several copies at a time. It is necessary to dig holes 30-40 cm deep (maximum - half a meter). A distance of at least 3 m is made between them. The bottom is laid with a 10-15 cm layer of good drainage. You can use crushed stone. Sprinkle it with sand on top, then place the plant and cover it with earth on top.

Attention! The three-lobed almond has a very sensitive root collar. It should always remain above the soil surface.

Immediately after planting, the bush is watered abundantly, tied to a support, and the ground around is mulched.

Watering and feeding

Planted shrubs of three-lobed almond do not suffer much from moderate drought. But periodically you need to moisten the soil well, especially after planting. The amount of moisture depends on the specific climatic conditions and the individual characteristics of the plant. Three-lobed almond seedlings with their own root system do not tolerate stagnant water, it is better to dry out a little than to pour them over.

If the rains in the region are frequent enough, then additional watering with three-blade almonds will not be required at all. In louiseanias, which were grafted onto other plants (for example, cherry plum, thorn or plum), they try to keep the trunk circle damp until the second half of July. But here it is also important not to overdo it. The line between wet and wet ground is quite thin. Moisture is applied exclusively at the root, getting to the crown is highly undesirable. For good growth and generous flowering of three-lobed almonds, it is required to pour in at least 2-3 buckets of water under one bush every 3-4 days in the spring.

Most of the energy luizeniya spends on flowering. Top dressing is applied before and after it. In early spring, they are fertilized with organic matter over melted snow. Use mullein diluted 1:10. It is also useful to use humus (one plant goes from 5 to 6 kg). After pruning, three-blade almonds are recommended to be fertilized with urea or ammonium nitrate (10 g / 30 l). For August, the best fertilizers are superphosphate (per 1 m2 soil no more than 20 g) and wood ash (a glass of raw materials is diluted with a bucket of water).

Pruning

Caring for three-lobed almonds involves regular pruning. It performs sanitary and formative functions. Held annually. In plants that bear fruit, not all branches are pruned and some of the fruits are retained. For sterile varieties of three-lobed almonds, cardinal pruning is practiced as soon as they have faded. Each shoot always has a part with 2-3 buds. Young shoots sprout from their sinuses at the end of the season. Five-year branches are removed completely. After winter, sanitary pruning of three-lobed almonds is carried out. It is necessary to get rid of all dead branches.

Preparing for winter

You need to start it in advance, even in the summer. To accelerate the lignification of the shoots of three-lobed almonds, they resort to tweezing, that is, pinching the tops. Thus, they will be protected from freezing.

Young bushes of three-lobed almonds are mulched with earth (up to 15 cm from the soil level), as well as with materials such as dry leaves, straw or dense lutrasil. It is important to ensure that the root collar does not sour and rot under the snow.

As for the standard specimens of three-bladed almonds, their branches must be carefully collected in a bunch, wrapped in non-woven material and tied with ropes.

Reproduction

There are the following plant propagation options:

  1. Layers. This method of propagation of three-lobed almonds is at a premium among gardeners. It's pretty simple and effective. Low and long branches are ideal. Grooves are made near the bush, three-lobed almond branches are laid in them and fixed. After that, they cover it with earth and water it well. After a year, the seedling is transferred to a permanent place.
  2. Cuttings. The source for such planting material is the upper branches of three-lobed almonds. The optimal length of the cuttings is from 15 to 20 cm. For successful rooting, they are soaked for a day in a special solution for root formation or growth stimulants are used. Until the cuttings take root, they require constant attention. After three-bladed almonds can be safely planted in the garden.
  3. Vaccinations. First, it is necessary to grow or pick up three-bladed almonds or trees from already existing bushes for grafting (these are the so-called rootstocks). It is preferable to work with frost-resistant species. Next, the cuttings themselves are prepared (these are scions). The best period for grafting three-lobed almonds is spring or summer. During this time, the plants produce the most sap. The technology is as follows: an incision is made in the rootstock (higher than the root collar) and a cutting is inserted into it. For reliable fixation, it is wound with tape or electrical tape. When the three-lobed almonds take root, the tapes are peeled off.
  4. With bones. The most troublesome way. They are used extremely rarely for propagation of three-lobed almonds, since not all varieties are capable of fruiting. And if there are fruits, then the process takes too much time and effort. At first, the seeds from fresh fruits of three-lobed almonds are stratified for a long time. In spring or autumn, you can start planting directly into the ground. Three-lobed almond bones are laid in 10-centimeter grooves (every 10 cm). Planting requires constant care. For a half-meter seedling, all branches are cut off (at a distance of 10 cm from the ground) and then planted around the site. In the future, they will become material for inoculation. It is not worth growing to a mature bush, since in most cases such a plant will lose all maternal traits.

Diseases and pests

Three-lobed almond varieties are resistant to common diseases.

But some care errors can lead to problems:

  1. Moniliosis. A type of fungal infection that infects Rosenmund almonds through flowers. Getting inside the branches, the spores begin to develop rapidly, which leads to the destruction of the wood. The shoots gradually turn black and resemble a charred tree. To avoid infection, the opened flowers of the three-lobed almond must be treated with common antifungal drugs. If the moment was missed, you will have to cut off all unhealthy-looking shoots.
  2. Milky shine. Another disease of three-lobed almonds caused by bacteria. Typical for the south. Regular inspection of the bush and timely pruning will help prevent it.
  3. Gray rot. Appears when summer is cold and damp. May be the result of over-watering or too dense planting. Affected branches of three-lobed almonds are immediately removed.

Pests infrequently attack three-lobed almonds. There are cases of damage by aphids, leafworm and plum bark beetle-sapwood. But they are not systematic. Caring for three-lobed almonds in the same way as for other shrubs does not create any particular difficulties. Sometimes tits can bother you. But it is enough to start feeding them, and they will stop feasting on the kidneys.

Conclusion

Three-lobed almond, or luiseania, a plant of rare beauty. For many gardeners, it has become a mutual love at first sight. All the efforts spent will be more than paid off when a cloud of fragrant flowers blooms.


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